In Isaiah 46:10 God Himself said "I make known the end from the beginning, from ancient times, what is still to come. I say, 'My purpose will stand, and I will do all that I please.' You see, this rest in the very beginning is telling us of what awaits mankind in the end.
The Sabbath and Israel
When God made the covenant with Israel, He told them: "Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work. But the seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates: For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it. "(Exodus 20:8-11)
The Sabbath was to serve as a reminder of creation, it was to be a time of corporate worship, and it was also to serve as a reminder to them that they were a set apart people. However, the prophetic picture or "shadow" of the Sabbath, had to do with a time when they would enter into God’s rest. He also told them that the Sabbath was to be a perpetual sign of the covenant with them.
However, Israel broke covenant with God and in His anger He swore that the generation that came out of Egypt would never enter into His rest. (Psalm 95:11, Hebrews 3:11). That Generation died in the wilderness and only their children were allowed to enter into the Promised Land - the place in which they were to experience rest.
Yeshua - Lord of the Sabbath
One of the things that Yeshua promised to those who would follow Him is rest. He said “Come to me, all you that are weary and are carrying heavy burdens, and I will give you rest." (Matthew 11:28 ) This rest that Yeshua spoke of had to do with a restored relationship with God through the forgiveness of sin; something that could only be attained by grace through faith in Him. He opened the way for mankind to enter into God's rest. Every person that has come to God through faith in Yeshua has entered into rest; He is Lord of the Sabbath! But there is more. In Hebrews we read:
"There remains, then, a Sabbath-rest for the people of God; for anyone who enters God’s rest also rests from their works, just as God did from His. Let us, therefore, make every effort to enter that rest, so that no one will perish by following their example of disobedience." (Hebrews 4:9-11)
The Sabbath - a shadow of things to come
Although as believers we have entered into rest from our works, there is still a rest to come. This Sabbath rest will take place when Yeshua Jesus returns and sets up His Kingdom on the earth and rule for a thousand years. At that time there will be peace on the earth and mankind will enter into perfect conditions; even the earth itself will rest and there will be peace among animals (Isaiah 11:6). At this, as believers we rest in God, but we still deal with sickness and death, and sin is still in the earth. However, the Bible tells of a time when those things will be things of the past. It is at that time when all of mankind would have entered into our ultimate rest in God. Sabbath is not only for the Jews, it is for all of mankind; all who will, by faith, come to God. (See Isaiah 56:6-7)
God's rest in Genesis 2:3 is a picture of the Day (1000 years) of complete rest that mankind will experience in the end. When we keep God's Sabbath holy, we are not doing it because it saves us, we do it because God has commanded us to. It also says that we are looking forward with great anticipation to the rest that is yet to come. Isaiah puts it this way concerning that time in the future "From one New Moon to another and from one Sabbath to another, all mankind will come and bow down before me," says the LORD. - Isaiah 66:23